Sunday, July 5, 2009

Ceftobiprole: first cephalosporin with activity against MRSA

Ceftobiprole is the first member of a new series of advanced cephalosporins with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The drug received a letter of approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in March 2008 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections including diabetic foot infections. Ceftobiprole exerts its antibacterial activity by inhibiting the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) involved in cell wall synthesis. It is stable against hydrolysis by many gram-positive beta-lactamases and a has higher affinity for various PBPs (such as PBP2a of MRSA or PBP2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae), which leads to a wider spectrum of activity compared with older beta-lactams. Ceftobiprole activity does not cover extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and some other pathogens, including Enterococcus faecium or Acinetobacter baumanii.
Generally well tolerated, with nausea and taste disturbance being the most common adverse events, ceftobiprole appeared noninferior to empiric therapy in several clinical trials. Several precautions regarding hypersensitivity and drug incompatibility are reported.
Ceftobiprole is available only for i.v. administration. Dosage recommendations are 500 mg as a 1-hour intravenous infusion every 12 hours for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by certain gram-positive pathogens, and 500 mg as a 2-hour infusion every 8 hours when susceptible gram-negative or both gram-positive and susceptible gram-negative pathogens are involved. Dosage adjustments are indicated for patients with moderate or severe renal impairment, and dosage recommendations are expected to be 500 or 250 mg, respectively, as a 2-hour infusion every 12 hours.
Ceftobiprole represents a promising option for the treatment of mono- and polymicrobial infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-positive and susceptible gram-negative pathogens, but further toxicity and safety studies are warranted.

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