Friday, November 8, 2013

Poor Quality of Sleep and its Relationship with Depression in First Year Medical Students. | . | Advances in Life Science and Technology

Poor Quality of Sleep and its Relationship with Depression in First Year Medical Students. | . | Advances in Life Science and Technology
Abdussalam , Mohammad Tariq Salman, Sushma Gupta, Mohit Trivedi, Mariam Farooqi

Introduction: High incidence of depression has been reported in undergraduate medical students. Sleep disturbance has been associated with depressive symptoms and higher body mass index (BMI). This study evaluated the relationship between sleep disturbance measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ( PSQI) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) with BMI and depression measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)  in 1st year  medical students. Method: Following Institutional Ethics Committee approval, 1st year medical students who volunteered for study and gave written informed consent (n=73) were administered PSQI, ESS & BDI questionnaires after seven months of admission. Height and weight were measured by standard method. Scores of PSQI, BDI and BMI were calculated and their interrelationship was measured statically.  Results: Poor quality of sleep (PSQI score greater or equal to five) and depression (BDI score eleven or greater) was seen in majority of students (64 and 60 % respectively). BMI was not significantly correlated with PSQI, ESS or BDI scores .There was significant positive correlation between PSQI and BDI (Pearson correlation, r = 0.410, P < 0.001), higher the BDI scores higher the PSQI scores. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality and depressive symptoms were observed in majority of 1st year medical students. Sleep quality and depressive symptoms were interrelated. Prevention and treatment strategies should target sleep as a factor that can potentially influence the development and course of Depression leading to poor academic performance. There is an urgent need to address this issue.
Keywords: PSQI, BDI, Medical students, college students, adolescent health, freshman, freshers

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

In vivo Hepatoprotective Potential of Nigella sativa Extract Against Rifampicin Induced Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity and Altered Redox Status

In vivo Hepatoprotective Potential of Nigella sativa Extract Against Rifampicin Induced Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity and Altered Redox Status

Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature

Volume 2Issue 3, 2012

Devendra Singh kushwahaMohd Tariq Salmana*, Hemant Kumar Singha, Ali Ahmada & V.K. vermaa 
pages 167-177
Despite the hepatotoxic effects of Rifampicin (RIF), its use is inevitable in the management of tuberculosis. No satisfactory treatment is available for prevention of this adverse effect. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of Nigella sativa extract (NSE) against Rifampicin induced sub-chronic hepatotoxicity. Male wistar rats were divided in 4 groups of 8 each and received vehicle, RIF (100 mg/ kg), RIF (100 mg/kg)+NSE (250 mg/kg) or RIF (100 mg/kg)+NSE (500 mg/kg) orally respectively for 28 days. Blood was withdrawn at day 14 and 28 for estimation of circulatory liver markers and anti-oxidant levels. At the end of the experiment histopathological study and estimation of SOD, CAT, GSH and LPO in liver samples was done. Pre-treatment of NSE produced significant hepatoprotection by decreasing the level of serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p< 0.01), Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (p< 0.001), Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (p<0 .001="" action="" advocate="" against="" along="" and="" another="" architecture="" bilirubin="" bridging="" by="" cat="" changes="" chronic="" degeneration="" degenerative="" drug="" extending="" fatty="" from="" further="" group="" groups="" gsh="" hepatocytes="" hepatoprotective="" hepatotoxicity.="" hepatoxicity.="" histopathology="" in="" increasing="" indicate="" induced="" infiltration="" is="" its="" kg="" level="" levels="" liver="" mda="" mg="" microvesicular="" mononuclear="" near="" necrosis="" needed="" normal="" nse="" of="" one="" p="" persisting="" portal="" possesses="" pre-treatment="" prevention="" regaining="" research="" results="" rif="" serum="" showed="" sod="" span="" steatosis.="" sub="" that="" the="" to="" tract.="" tract="" triditis="" use="" with="">

Friday, October 18, 2013

Black cumin seeds possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity comparable to indomethacin.



Objective: The medicinal values of Nigella sativa have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of inflammation. The present study investigates the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanol extract of Nigella sativa seed during different phases of its germination on Wistar rats. Methods: Seeds of N. sativa were grown in vitro in glass petri plates using multiple folds of damp filter paper. Complete plantlet with two leaves was obtained in 11 days. The acute anti-inflammatory activity of N. sativa extracts during different phases of germination was measured plethysmographically using kaolin as inflammatory agent, analgesic activity was measured by hot plate method, keeping indomethacin (10mg/kg b.w) as reference standard in both tests.
Results: All tested extracts of N. sativa (1gm/kg b.w) during different phases of germination showed significant reduction in paw oedema in comparison to control (P<0 .001="" 5th="" all="" among="" analgesic="" and="" anti-inflammatory="" day="" during="" effect="" extract="" extracts.="" germination="" hot="" in="" increased="" of="" on="" p="" plate="" reaction="" showed="" significant="" test.="" test="" tested="" the="" time="">
Conclusion: It may be concluded that extracts of N. sativa possess enhanced anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities during germination as compared to seed extract. High metabolic activity and higher contents of secondary metabolites expressed during germination might be responsible for this activity.

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Saturday, June 1, 2013

Black Cumin seed (Nigella sativa, Kalonji) protects against Paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity

Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Nigella sativa Seed in Paracetamol Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity In vivo
D.S. Kushwah, M.T. Salman, P. Singh, V.K. Verma and A. Ahmad

Paracetamol overdose causes serious liver necrosis. Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa in Paracetamol induced acute hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Fasted male Wistar rats were orally treated with Nigella sativa extract in graded doses for 5 days followed by Nigella sativa extract and paracetamol 3 g kg-1 on 6 and 7th day. Circulatory liver markers and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated and histopathological study of liver performed. Paracetamol caused a significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and total Bilirubin and a significant decrease in GSH compared to control. Nigella sativa pretreatment significantly prevented the increase in liver enzymes and total bilirubin and decrease in GSH level as compared to paracetamol group. Liver histopathology showed marked reduction in sinusoidal dilatation, midzonal necrosis, portal triaditis and occasional apoptosis in Nigella sativa extract treated groups as compared to group receiving only paracetamol. Nigella sativa extract possesses hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced acute hepatoxicity. Further research is needed to advocate its prophylactic use for drug induced hepatotoxicity

Thursday, February 21, 2013

Recent new drug approvals

1. Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa)

  • Indication: Adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adult patients with severe (≥500mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia. 
  • Pharmacology: Icosapent ethyl is an ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).
  • Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid reduces hepatic very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TG) synthesis and/or secretion and enhances TG clearance from circulating VLDL particles.
  • Potential mechanisms of action include 
    • increased ß-oxidation;
    •  inhibition of acyl-CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyl­transferase (DGAT); 
    • decreased lipogenesis in the liver; and
    •  increased plasma lipoprotein lipase activity.
2. Cabozantinib (Cometriq)

  • Indication


Treatment of progressive, metastatic medullary thyroid cancer.

  • Pharmacology:

    • Cabozantinib inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of RET, MET, VEGFR-1, -2 and -3, KIT, TRKB, FLT-3, AXL, and TIE-2. 
    • These receptor tyrosine kinases are involved in both normal cellular function and pathologic processes such as oncogenesis, metastasis, tumor angiogenesis, and maintenance of the tumor microenvironment.

Friday, February 15, 2013

Antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa seed in various germination phases on clinical bacterial strains isolated from human patients

See full text of paper on antimicrobial activity of N. sativa in various germination stages against clinical strains. Nigella sativa is an important spice and flavoring agent which is widely used in various European and Asian cuisines. It harbors an array of medicinal properties as shown by various researches. Germination is a phenomenon during which rapid changes in metabolic activities and the interconversions of metabolites take place. The objective of present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of N. sativa seed that are on various germination phases against clinical bacterial strains isolated from pus, urine, ascitic fluid and cerebrospinal fluid of various patients. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by using a modified macro-broth dilution technique. The agar well diffusion method was used to test the antimicrobial effects of N. sativa extracts. Some broad spectrum antibiotics were used as positive control. The phytochemical constituents of N. sativa seed were also studied in germination phases. The distilled methanolic extracts of N. sativa showed significant antimicrobial activity against tested clinical strains of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis bacteria. Results showed day-dependent and dose-dependent activity and a significant antimicrobial effect was observed as germination proceeded.

Wednesday, December 26, 2012

Bioethics in India

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Bioethics among Doctors in a Tertiary Care Government Teaching Hospital in India
J Clinic Res Bioeth 2011, 2:118. 0:0, (2011)

Friday, February 17, 2012

Drugs Update

New drugs approved for marketing in India during November-December 2011

Diazinon Flea Drops
Spot on Dogs 30.0% w/w
For dogs infected with fleas.
Cabazitaxel Injection
60mg / 1.5ml
In combination with prednisone for treatment of patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostrate cancer previously treated with a docetaxel-containing treatment regimen.
Trifluridine Eye Drops 1% w/v

For the treatment of primary keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent epithelial keratitis due to herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2.

Fosaprepitant (as Dimeglumine) for Injection 150mg.

1. Prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with highly emetogenic cisplatin based cancer chemotherapy in adults.
2. Prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy in adults.

Abiraterone Acetate Tablets 250mg

In combination with prednisone for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostrate cancer who have received prior chemotherapy containing docetaxel.

Dabigatran Etexilate( as Mesilate) hard gelatin Capsules 75mg/110mg/150mg

For prevention of stroke, systemic embolism and reduction of vascular mortality in adult patients with atrial fibrillation.

Crizotinib  hard gelatin Capsules 200mg/250mg

For the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that is anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) – positive as detected by an FDA-approved test.

Drugs  banned in India in 2011

1.      Gatifloxacin
2.      Tegaserod
3.      Nimesulide for children below 12 years.
4.      Cisapride
5.      Phenyl propanolamine
6.      Human placental extract
7.      Sibutramine
8.      R-Sibutramine

FDA approvals in January 2012

1.      Fentanyl Sublingual Spray

Opioid analgesic sublingual spray formulation indicated for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain.

2.      Glucarpidase Injection

Carboxypeptidase enzyme indicated for the treatment of toxic plasma methotrexate levels in patients with delayed methotrexate clearance due to impaired renal function.

3.      Ciclesonide Nasal Aerosol

Corticosteroid nasal spray indicated for the treatment of symptoms associated with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis.

4.      Ingenol mebutate Topical Gel

Inducer of cell death indicated for the topical treatment of actinic keratosis.
5.      Axitinib Tablets        
Kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma

6.      Exenatide Extended-Release Injectable Suspension

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

7.      Vismodegib Capsules

Hedgehog pathway inhibitor for the treatment of patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC).

8.      Ivacaftor Tablets

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator indicated for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) in patients age 6 years and older who have a G551D mutation in the CFTR gene.

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