Wednesday, August 12, 2015

Comparative Effect of Agomelatine versus Escitalopram on Glycemic Control and Symptoms of Depression in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Depression

Kumar K, Salman MT, Shukla V, Ahmad A, Verma V K, Rizvi D A and Kohli A: Comparative Effect of Agomelatine versus Escitalopram on Glycemic Control and Symptoms of Depression in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Depression). Int J Pharm Sci Res 2015; 6(10): 1000-06.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6(10).1000-06.

Introduction: A bidirectional relationship exists between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and depression. There is dearth of research on comparative suitability of different antidepressants in people with T2DM and depression.
 Aim: To compare the effects of Escitalopram and Agomelatine on glycemic control and symptoms of depression in patients with T2DM and depression. 
Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized, open label, parallel groups study. Patients diagnosed as T2DM with moderate to severe depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Score ≥ 14) were randomized to receive either Escitalopram (10 mg daily) or Agomelatine (25 mg daily) along with antidiabetic agents as per American Diabetes Association (ADA), 2013 guidelines. Depression was assessed using HDRS and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).
Results: Escitalopram group showed a significant reduction in FBG and HbA1Cvalues as compared to Agomelatine group at 1 and 2 months. HDRS scores of Escitalopram group were significantly lower than Agomelatine group at 1 and 2 months (8.85 ± 5.86 and15.6 ± 2.5 respectively). Similarly, Escitalopram group showed significantly lower MADRS scoresthan Agomelatine group at 1 and 2 months (13.6 ± 1.85 and 21.15 ± 2.34 respectively). 
Conclusion: Escitalopram seems to be better than Agomelatinefor glycemic control and ameliorating symptoms of depression in patients of T2DM and depression.

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Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa extracts during germination on central nervous system

Background: Nigella sativa Linn. which has many acclaimed medicinal properties is an indigenous herbaceous plant and belongs to the Ranunculaceae family, which grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Pakistan and India. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of N. sativa seed extracts of different germination phases on the central nervous system (CNS) responses in experimental animals. 
Materials and Methods: Anxiolytic, locomotor activity of extracts (1 g/kg of body weight) was evaluated in both stressed and unstressed animal models and antiepileptic effect was evaluated by maximal electroshock seizure model keeping diazepam (20 mg/kg) as a positive control. Antidepressant effect was evaluated by forced swim test and tail suspension test keeping imipramine (15 mg/kg) as a positive control. 
Results: All tested extracts of N. sativa during different phases of germination (especially 5th day germination phase) showed significant (P < 0.001) anxiolytic effect in comparison to control. Diazepam reduced locomotor activity in control (unstressed) rats but did not show affect in stressed rats while N. sativa extracts from germination phases significantly (P < 0.001) reduced locomotor activity in unstressed as well as stressed animals. All the extracts of N. sativa from different germination phases exhibited significant (P < 0.001) reduction in various phases of epileptic seizure on comparison with the reference standard (diazepam). During antidepressant test, N. sativa extracts exhibited a slight reduction in the immobility of rats. 
Conclusion: During germination, especially in 5th day germination extract, N. sativa showed significant CNS depressant activity as compared to whole seeds that possibly may be due higher content of secondary metabolites produced during germination.

Monday, August 10, 2015

Presurgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis Pattern In An Indian Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Authors: Rupinder Kaur, Mohd Tariq Salman, Narendra K. Gupta, Uma Gupta, Ali Ahmad, Vinod K. Verma

The present study was performed to study the antibiotic prophylaxis pattern in patients admitted in Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynaecology wards of a Tertiary Care Teaching hospital in North India. It was an observational, non interventional and analytical study used to evaluate the patients undergoing surgery through period of one and half years. Information concerning demographic data, type of surgery, and parameters of antibiotic therapy (selection of antibiotic, dose, route and duration of therapy as well as cost) was collected from case records of 400 patients. Third generation cephalosporins were the most commonly prescribed class of antibiotics. No consistency was noted in the timing of administration of prophylactic antimicrobials agents which were prescribed 30 minutes to 6 hours before surgery. The dose was not repeated during surgery. Majority of antibiotics were prescribed from Essential Medicines List. Surgical prophylaxis was inappropriate in terms of choice of antimicrobial agent, timing of administration as well as the total duration of prescription, in majority of the cases. Interventions are warranted to promote the development, dissemination and adoption of evidence based guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis.

Saturday, August 8, 2015

Atypical Thyrotoxicosis Relapse after Carbimazole Discontinuation: A Case Report with Pharmacological View

authors: Sharique Ahmad, Saeeda Wasim, Mohammed Tariq Salman, Mohammed Aqwam Siddiqui,
Nahid Shabnam, Pragya Khanna

A 15-year-old girl who presented with pyrexia of unknown origin of 3 month’s duration was evaluated and examined. She had two palpable axillary lymph nodes associated with mild hepatosplenomegaly and leukopenia (white blood cell count - 1700/cmm). Later was assessed for systemic infection, hematological malignancies and autoimmune disorders. All investigations showed no cause pertaining leukopenia and fever. There was moderate sized goiter in midline of neck with past history of hyperthyroidism associated with tachycardia, tremors, weight loss and thyroid hormone profi le suggesting hyperthyroidism, which prompted to think about thyrotoxicosis associated autoimmunity leading to lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and leukopenia. Patient improved rapidly in 3 days after initiation of anti-thyroid drug. 

Friday, August 7, 2015

Challenges faced by males

Challenging Toxic Masculinity
Author Mel Rogers
As a group, men have certain advantages in society, the effects of which can be seen in a wide variety of ways— at all levels of government, for example, the overwhelming majority of positions are held by men, But while it's important to look at ways to redress these imbalances, it's also important to consider the ways in which this kind of society disadvantages and harms men.
The reality of American society is that there's a strict range in terms of what's considered to be acceptable masculine and feminine behavior, and it hurts men as well as women. For boys, this means growing up in a society where men aren't encouraged to show emotions, to ask for help, to back down from confrontation, or to back down from a dare. We teach boys that men don't show pain or fear, or talk about their emotions. As a results, many boys grow up believing that the only emotion they can show is anger, and that violence is an acceptable outlet for anger.
Statistics show that the overwhelming majority of violent crimes are committed by men: 99% of rapes, 98% of mass shootings, 86% of armed robberies, 85% of domestic violence injuries, 77% of aggravated assaults. And it's not because men are inherently criminals, or inherently violent. Many factors contribute to this gendered disparity, but it is at least in part because boys grow up in a society that places limitations on what's considered acceptable masculine behavior.
These expectations that are placed on boys and men are part of what's called toxic masculinity. This phrase refers to the fact that society's ideas and expectations for men and male behavior are often harmful to them, and can cause a great deal of pain. Learn more about this subject with this piece

Friday, November 8, 2013

Poor Quality of Sleep and its Relationship with Depression in First Year Medical Students. | . | Advances in Life Science and Technology

Poor Quality of Sleep and its Relationship with Depression in First Year Medical Students. | . | Advances in Life Science and Technology
Abdussalam , Mohammad Tariq Salman, Sushma Gupta, Mohit Trivedi, Mariam Farooqi

Introduction: High incidence of depression has been reported in undergraduate medical students. Sleep disturbance has been associated with depressive symptoms and higher body mass index (BMI). This study evaluated the relationship between sleep disturbance measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ( PSQI) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) with BMI and depression measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)  in 1st year  medical students. Method: Following Institutional Ethics Committee approval, 1st year medical students who volunteered for study and gave written informed consent (n=73) were administered PSQI, ESS & BDI questionnaires after seven months of admission. Height and weight were measured by standard method. Scores of PSQI, BDI and BMI were calculated and their interrelationship was measured statically.  Results: Poor quality of sleep (PSQI score greater or equal to five) and depression (BDI score eleven or greater) was seen in majority of students (64 and 60 % respectively). BMI was not significantly correlated with PSQI, ESS or BDI scores .There was significant positive correlation between PSQI and BDI (Pearson correlation, r = 0.410, P < 0.001), higher the BDI scores higher the PSQI scores. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality and depressive symptoms were observed in majority of 1st year medical students. Sleep quality and depressive symptoms were interrelated. Prevention and treatment strategies should target sleep as a factor that can potentially influence the development and course of Depression leading to poor academic performance. There is an urgent need to address this issue.
Keywords: PSQI, BDI, Medical students, college students, adolescent health, freshman, freshers

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

In vivo Hepatoprotective Potential of Nigella sativa Extract Against Rifampicin Induced Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity and Altered Redox Status

In vivo Hepatoprotective Potential of Nigella sativa Extract Against Rifampicin Induced Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity and Altered Redox Status

Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature

Volume 2Issue 3, 2012

Devendra Singh kushwahaMohd Tariq Salmana*, Hemant Kumar Singha, Ali Ahmada & V.K. vermaa 
pages 167-177
Despite the hepatotoxic effects of Rifampicin (RIF), its use is inevitable in the management of tuberculosis. No satisfactory treatment is available for prevention of this adverse effect. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of Nigella sativa extract (NSE) against Rifampicin induced sub-chronic hepatotoxicity. Male wistar rats were divided in 4 groups of 8 each and received vehicle, RIF (100 mg/ kg), RIF (100 mg/kg)+NSE (250 mg/kg) or RIF (100 mg/kg)+NSE (500 mg/kg) orally respectively for 28 days. Blood was withdrawn at day 14 and 28 for estimation of circulatory liver markers and anti-oxidant levels. At the end of the experiment histopathological study and estimation of SOD, CAT, GSH and LPO in liver samples was done. Pre-treatment of NSE produced significant hepatoprotection by decreasing the level of serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p< 0.01), Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (p< 0.001), Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (p<0 .001="" action="" advocate="" against="" along="" and="" another="" architecture="" bilirubin="" bridging="" by="" cat="" changes="" chronic="" degeneration="" degenerative="" drug="" extending="" fatty="" from="" further="" group="" groups="" gsh="" hepatocytes="" hepatoprotective="" hepatotoxicity.="" hepatoxicity.="" histopathology="" in="" increasing="" indicate="" induced="" infiltration="" is="" its="" kg="" level="" levels="" liver="" mda="" mg="" microvesicular="" mononuclear="" near="" necrosis="" needed="" normal="" nse="" of="" one="" p="" persisting="" portal="" possesses="" pre-treatment="" prevention="" regaining="" research="" results="" rif="" serum="" showed="" sod="" span="" steatosis.="" sub="" that="" the="" to="" tract.="" tract="" triditis="" use="" with="">

Friday, October 18, 2013

Black cumin seeds possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity comparable to indomethacin.



Objective: The medicinal values of Nigella sativa have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of inflammation. The present study investigates the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanol extract of Nigella sativa seed during different phases of its germination on Wistar rats. Methods: Seeds of N. sativa were grown in vitro in glass petri plates using multiple folds of damp filter paper. Complete plantlet with two leaves was obtained in 11 days. The acute anti-inflammatory activity of N. sativa extracts during different phases of germination was measured plethysmographically using kaolin as inflammatory agent, analgesic activity was measured by hot plate method, keeping indomethacin (10mg/kg b.w) as reference standard in both tests.
Results: All tested extracts of N. sativa (1gm/kg b.w) during different phases of germination showed significant reduction in paw oedema in comparison to control (P<0 .001="" 5th="" all="" among="" analgesic="" and="" anti-inflammatory="" day="" during="" effect="" extract="" extracts.="" germination="" hot="" in="" increased="" of="" on="" p="" plate="" reaction="" showed="" significant="" test.="" test="" tested="" the="" time="">
Conclusion: It may be concluded that extracts of N. sativa possess enhanced anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities during germination as compared to seed extract. High metabolic activity and higher contents of secondary metabolites expressed during germination might be responsible for this activity.

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